ELT and the Crisis in Education

Sunday 7 November 2010

by Nik Peachey

In this first blog posting I’d like us to look at some of the major issues that are affecting education at this time and try to examine them in relation to English language teaching and how they may affect it.

One of the reasons I want to start this series by looking at the broader field of education and the changes taking place is that over the years it has been a source of annoyance to me that English language teaching or EFL, ESL  has so often been seen as a kind of ‘poor relation’ within the field of education.

Poll Image

English language teachers, particularly native speaker ones who have graduated, as I did, through the kind of 1 month certificate course followed perhaps by a diploma course some years later are very often not viewed as ‘proper teachers’ within the education establishment. I often feel this is very unfair particularly as English language teaching has in so many ways long been ahead of many other teaching disciplines, both in terms of its awareness of learner centred pedagogical approaches and its, at times, obsessive need to continuously reflect and reevaluate and invent itself.

However, more recently I’ve started to feel a reversal of this trend, as many educational institutions, particularly in developed countries, start to face up to what is being described as a crisis in education. At the same time I’m starting to experience a sense that English language teaching is perhaps becoming more conservative as language schools, language departments, ELT publishers and language teachers themselves seem to want to ignore the huge changes that are taking place, in order to hang on to the established practices and patterns of working that they are comfortable with.

Questionnaire
Before I go on to point to some of the information sources that have stimulated my thinking about the way education is changing and how that should impact on English language teaching, I would like you to have a look at this questionnaire.

ELT and the Crisis in Education

It’s a social questionnaire, so by answering the questions in it you will be able to compare your answer with other people who have read this post and answered it (all responses are anonymous and you don’t need to register). If you register you can also add questions to the questionnaire.

I’d also like to leave you with a few questions to comment on:

1. What do you feel are the major challenges facing ELT?
2. How have things changed within your teaching context over the last five years?
3. Can we change the way we train new teachers to help them cope with what’s being described as the new ‘digital native’ students they need to teach?

I look forward to your comments and questions.

To read the second part of this posting go to:  ELT and the Crisis in Education – Part 2

Best

Nik Peachey

32 responses to ELT and the Crisis in Education

  1. George Trigas says:

    1.Making use of developments in Technology
    2. They haven’t changed much
    3. I think we can if we help some overcome their technophobic behaviour and insecurity in losing control.

  2. Elizabeth says:

    My answers to you questions:

    1. In the country I teach in -Italy – the major challenges
    are lack of funding for state schools and so less quality
    teaching; The fact that certain teacherssaid, do not embrace change, in particular concerning the use of technology. The use of Technology in the classroom and out of the classroom should be promoted and it doesn’t need to be difficult. Most students have computers so they could be a great asset and aid to the financial situation on the whole.
    2. Within my personal teaching context, things have changed grealy since I’m teaching English to Italian Air Force personnel so it’s much more ESP and CLIL – it’s great! But I haven’t lost touch with my private students of all types and I’m also a trainer of Primary school teachers in Italy so I’m always keeping myself up to date on all areas.
    3. I believe we can and as i have already said, technology doesn’t have to be difficult!

    • Nik Peachey says:

      Hi Elizabeth,

      I agree it doesn’t have to be difficult and we can make small changes that in the longer term have a big impact.
      How do you find the attitudes of the teachers you are training for primary? Are tey open to the ise of technology with youger learners?
      Best
      Nik

  3. Jason West says:

    Teachers and teaching will need to change. But the changes, that will inevitably happen, run counter-intuitively to the way ELT is currently set up and sees itself as providing value. There is a lot at stake for a lot of people, a bit like the music biz a few years ago.

  4. 1. Major changes include the greater exposure have to English outside the classroom, especially online, bringing unparalleled opportunities for Learner Autonomy and often Ss and Ts discovering language together, rather than Ts being the ‘owners’ of content.

    2. In the past 5 years in Brazil, Distance Learning e.g. via MOODLE and similar platforms, has undergone an explosion. People in large cities such as São Paulo find it increasingly difficult to drive (through heavy traffic) to F2F courses and find cheap parking etc… so online learning has grown tenfold since 2005.

    3. Of course we can and DO change PRESETT and INSETT, but sadly many universities, still seen as the ‘official’ PRESETT courses for teachers in Brazil, are far from being in tune with this new reality, but rather focus on metalanguage and Portuguese-language instruction, so graduates rarely speak English even at an intermediate level, then go straight into a classroom and are often demotivated and stressed.

    • Nik Peachey says:

      Hi Graeme,
      Thanks for your reply. It’s good to hear about Brazil. I’m very much in favour of the power of deveoping sts autonomous use of the web to develop their English skills. I’m not a great fan of Moodle though. Do you find there are high drop out rates with online courses?

      Best

      Nik

  5. Graeme says:

    Unfortunately EFL teaching in the UK tends to attract those who are not as comfortable or as inclined towards embracing digital developments in mainstream business and social culture. As such we find ourselves with a huge pool of people who are at best ambivalent towards the digital age and it’s applications in the EFL classroom. This is not helped by how the digital efforts of the institutes have been received, some providers, e.g. EF are investing heavily in this area but the end result has not proved popular with the learners, who perceive, perhaps correctly, that they can learn this stuff at home alone.

  6. kristina says:

    Hi, I’d like to share what I think is a major challenge in ELT. I’ll start with children.

    Misconceptions about the many ways people learn languages means that parents put pressure on teachers to teach loads of ‘grammar’, because that is how mom and dad studied English at school. When this is coupled with centralised policy-making at ministry of education level and centralised standard exams, school are under pressure to show results. Many English teachers feel they have to teach to exams.

    Kids get grammar lessons and worksheet for so many years (without being able to speak or write in English) that they feel they can never learn the language. Many come to hate English.

    By the time they are at university level, these students are very difficult to teach because they are reluctant to try any other way of learning a foreign language. They still believe they need loads of explicit grammar teaching to pass exams – even if those exams are skills based exams based on communicative, performance objectives – and in spite of the fact that they have not been successful with that way of learning! Some teachers try to be creative, try to get students to do creative work but it’s a hard, hard slog when the majority aren’t on the same wave-length.

    In my opinion, the previous leaning experience of students and their poor motivation are two of the biggest challenges teachers face in many countries round the world.

    Re Q2 and 3 – I love using technology but not all students come with that background . It depends on what country you live in and what region of that country as well. Because of top-down g’t level decisions, many teachers are forced to use technology when they are not ready. School invest in one expensive IWB (while blocking most Internet sites – sigh) when quite frankly the same money would buy every teacher an OHP with money left over!

    I love the 2 dollar interactive white board. http://fnoschese.wordpress.com/2010/08/06/the-2-interactive-whiteboard/
    If teachers don’t do student-centered teaching without technology, throwing technology at them doesn’t change their teaching style. Technology just becomes another way to be teacher-centered.

    Many young teachers want to change things, but in a top-down hierarchical system it takes ages to rise to a position where you are the power to influence decisions.

    Meanwhile, we just keep on trying! We’ll get there in the end.

    Thanks for the interesting questions, Nik

    • Nik Peachey says:

      Hi kristina,

      Yes I agree with what you are saying. IWBs are a mixed blessing. On the one hand I feel that they are quite useful in helping to get multimedia into the classroom and get internet into the class and in a way teachers feel they can control, but on the other hand it is a ‘cop out’ for schools and education authorities because they tend to feel that having provided and IWB they have dealt with the problem and this just isn’t true. There’s often still a huge training gap and a lot of IWBs don’t get used or get used badly because of that. Though I do feel this is progress of sorts, as at least it does get teachers engaging in technology in a way they feel they can control, so perhaps that is a step towards actually letting go of control and letting the students take over. So I kind of view IWBs as a mistake we had to make.

      As for previous learning experiences, yes that is a huge problem. I remember having students in Kiev who had studied English for 8 years and were still absolute beginners, but still didn’t want to change the way they were taught!! If you can fight against this though and show them other ways and give them some experience of successful learning, hat can turn things around very quickly though.

      Good luck.

      Best

      Nik

  7. Evan says:

    1 ELF, technology, speed of change, customer expectations, McDonaldisation

    2 More pressure to perform. Measurable results. (I work in corporate training)

    3 Teacher training is always changing to meet new challenges. But lots of inertia in the system – too many big players unwilling / unable to take risks.

  8. Candy van Olst says:

    Hi Nik

    I can only really comment on BE, but I think the major changes in BE are a result of the increasing economic and time pressure that BE students find themselves under. This makes online/distance remote teaching more nad more essential. The trouble with that though is there is a serious lack of actual synchronous speaking in such an environment and language teaching needs to have as much oral pracitce included as possible -which is a major challenge in EFL today.

    Secondly within my own teaching context – BE – the emphasis has shifted from pure language learning to soft skills coaching, effective communicating across cultures and with other non-native speakers. This means that teaching is far more about communicating than about “getting the grammar right”. Teachers need now to see English as a tool and not as an end in itself and learn how to train students to apply it.

    As to training new teachers – a lot of the younger ones are “digital natives” anyway. It is the older school that need retraining. When I mention telephone lessons on online training, my older teachers groan. I undetstand and agree that language training optimally needs to be F2F in a classroom with both teacher nad student fully engaged as the communication act unfolds and develops, but reality is telling me something different. Th student we have at the school want the F2F experience; they are almost universally averse to video-conferencing in their work environments and have the same feeling towrds “distance” or “remote” learning. But once again, the realities of the world we live in are telling us that this is ssomething we all need ot get used to and the sooner the better.

    Thanks for the opportunity to share thoughts and experiences.

    Candy

    • Nik Peachey says:

      Hi Candy

      Yes I would think that anyone involved, particularly in business needs to start developing their skills with video conferencing. There are a lot of new skills to learn and it is really important for business people to come over as confident and competent when using video conferencing.

      Managing turn taking in video conferences can be very complex. especially if there is a lot of time lag, and it can be very frustrating trying to communicate with people who aren’t used to dealing with that. It must be far more so when using a foriegn language too.

      Best

      Nik

  9. […] by Helen Beesley Join Nik Peachey our new resident blogger in the Delta Development Blog. Nik is currently discussing ELT and the Crisis in Education, looking at some of the major issues that are affecting education at this time and examining them in relation to English language teaching and how they may affect it. Blog with Nik on this topic here. […]

  10. kristina says:

    I think new teachers and not only new should be trained as more as it possible, because the progress goes fast but the methods are old, and the requires are changed. We have a real crisis but some of us, teachers, try to cope with it, using net, and some their own possibilities, the problem of economical place of the country has also great influence on the education.

  11. khalifa says:

    i would like to thank your efforts ,

  12. Stephen Greene says:

    I was interested to read Graeme Hodgson’s views because I also teach in Brazil. While I basically agree with him there are another couple of issues that I think are also important.

    1. One of the major problems affecting students in Brazil is access to technologies. Richer families have access to all kinds of technologies and are happy using them. Poorer ones have virtually no access at all.

    2. A big change for me in Brazil has been the growth of franchise schools offering to teach English in 18 months. I have a lot of students who have become frustrated by this approach, but the market rules and a lot of better schools are suffering.

    3. I agree completely with Graeme. Some of the teachers coming out of the universities here with ‘Letras’ degrees lack even basic teaching skills. Just throwing technology at them isn’t going to help.

    • Nik Peachey says:

      Hi Stephen,

      What you mention in numbr 2 is a big problem, especially when these companies make wild claims for technology. In Spain 10 years ago there was a company doing a similar thing. Lots of people signed up and then the company quickly folded taking all their money with them. This kind of thing has a negative impact on all online / blended learnng providers and really knocks the whole inductry.

      Best

      Nik

  13. […] by Nik Peachey First, I would like to say thank you to all the people who answered the questionnaire and left comments on my first posting about ELT and the Crisis in Education. […]

  14. Certainly, the rise of technology as commonplace among the lives of our YLs plays a huge part in how they learn. This is something that YL teachers have to be able to respond to, and the need to take the lesson off the page has taken on a much greater significance if we are to keep students motivated and engaged in their learning. Given the power that ‘technology’ has given YLs these days through, to give just one example, being able to create their own content and share that with a wider audience it is vital that our students are encouraged to mirror the ‘control’ they have in their personal lives with what goes on in the classroom. Through tools such as Facebook, teenagers have become far more aware of the power of their identity and are no longer restricted to the largely marginalised arena of the school playground to get their message of ‘this is me’ across. Consequently, the issue of how to display their ‘identity’ is more refined and this translates into a classroom environment, with students accustomed to being more adept at establishing themselves and knowing what they like, what they don’t like, what they need, etc.
    Teachers need to be more aware of how this drastic shift in the affective behaviour of our students impacts on what (and how) they learn. This involves looking closely at whether the ways we have been trained (and are still being trained) to teach are effective and also whether the tools we use to do this, i.e. a continued (over)reliance on a coursebook are beneficial. I feel there needs to be more negotiation with students, which can happen in several ways (see my recent blog posts for examples http://bcnpaul1.blogspot.com) and the challenge of meaningfully bringing students into the decision-making process is probably one of the biggest challenges today.
    Another strand of the challenge is the desire to use as many new technologies into classroom practice as possible. This enthusiasm by many many teachers needs to be channelled somehow and tempered so that it is integrated into the learning process rather than just used for the sake of it. This raises questions of how to train teachers to do this successfully, which can often be difficult. Anyway, that’s my two-cent’s worth!

    • Nik Peachey says:

      Hi Paul

      Thanks for your comments. Particularly the ones about course books resonate with me. Single text paper-based reading is really becoming a thing of the past and as more peple read online, they are having to deal with multiple hyperlinked texts that often incorporate video and audio too. I think that to really develop the genuine digital receptive skills that students need to function in the modern world, we have to be using digital tools of delivery.

      Best

      Nik

  15. Wendy says:

    Hi Nik

    For me the great changes have been to see a shift from BICS to CALP … if learners are going to need English for further study in the future then it makes more sense for coursebooks to focus on cross curricular content than to put dialogues in them …. fine for cartoons or for a story but it just doesn’t work to get interaction

    I’ve been working with teachers who’ve had the teaching of English foisted upon them without much training (although that is improving) and whilst they are wary they are curious (always a good sign) and certainly in training enthusiastic and motivated (probably cos the methodology is very different to what they are used to – this might loop back into their own teaching, which is of course the aim)

    I think that training current cohorts of teachers in teacher training establishments using ‘digital native’ compatible methods is the most important place to start and work it in thru them up the system … this doesn’t mean that it cannot also be introduced in schools where the facilities are possible but until each student has their own access to a PC/similar (i-pad) then it still looks like a pretty teacher led method …IWB can still be used like whiteboards/blackboard replacements …

    bfn, W

    • Nik Peachey says:

      Hi Wendy

      Thanks for the comments. It’s great to hear that someone at least has enthusiastic trainee teachers. I do believe that there are a lot of teachers both digital native and non native, that are keen to engage with technology, but a lot of the problems actually come from above. They need more support to really make it happen.

      Best

      Nik

  16. Maria Sara says:

    Hi Nik,

    I´m back and trying to reply to your blog. Am afraid I shall have to write questions down here again so that I can follow them:

    What do you think are the major challenges facing ELT ?

    Stagnation and the fear of change. “At the same time I´m starting…that they are comfortable with”

    I am afraid that I don´t think this is a recent phenomenon. For the past 30 years people from Henry Widdowson, Christopher Candlin,Michael Breen, Rod Ellis, Adrian Underhill,David Nunan, Jack Richards and many others, have been trying to move the profession forward with their professional writings most of which people in ELT are not even aware of.So it is not now that ELT has suddenly become conservative. It has always been backward and uninformed in spite of the massive body of research available. And it is not the publishers’ fault either. Publishers publish what will sell and in a market as uninformed as ELT there is no point in publishing something that nobody will buy because they don´t understand it. ( I am a published author myself so I have an idea of how the system works)

    From my point of view, it is a very weird phenomenon, that is, how people continue to cling to various versions of Audiolingualism in spite of everything that has been published. Not only in terms of “theory”, that is one of the obsessions in ELT, that they insist they don´t need theory, they need “recipes” which will help them teach succesful classes, but also in terms of coursebooks published in the early 80’s such as David & Jane Willis’s ( can´t remember the name now of that one and another important one) ,even up to Activate your English, by Barbara Sinclair and Philip Prowse published in 1995/6 which were a total flop in terms of sales because nobody understood them.

    My contention is that this is the result of the poor quality of Teacher Education ( rather Teacher Training courses) which have never aimed to provide teachers with a solid set of values and beliefs, nor skills such as self- awareness and critical reflection that would allow them to move forward.

    I have just published an article in ISSUE 64 of the TD SIG and another one along those lines is coming up in the SPRING ISSUE OF THE LASIG.

    How have things changed within your teaching context in the last 5 years?

    They haven´t. ELT teachers have continued to cling desperately to the behaviours they were taught in their pre-service courses, few of them have moved towards a Diploma, and that is why books like LTP’S Innovations were changed to the point of disfiguration once Michael Lewis sold his company.

    Can we change…they need to teach?

    We can and we SHOULD. But before we try and get there, we have to make ELT teachers aware that each action/ decision we take in the classroom is based on Values/ Beliefs/ Principles that underpin what we do.

    Between 2007 and 2008 I ran an EDI course called THE EDUCATIONAL USE OF ICT. I had a mix of “digital natives” and, let´s call it “digital beginners”. The “digital natives” were the first ones to drop out because they could not cope with the first assignment of the course: ” How can the use of ICT benefit the teaching/ learning process?” Their problem was not ICT, it was that they did not know what was meant by the teaching/ learning process.

    So, I don´t see ICT as the main stumbling block in the ELT profession at all. It is just an additional medium of instruction that can help broaden the scope of those learning a foreign language.

    The main obstacle, from my point of view is the poor quality of professional education which does not stimulate ELT teachers to experiment, do classroom-based research, etc. And until we remove that obstacle, we cannot expect any progress. As Sumata Mitra said in the first video you posted in this ning: ” Any teacher who thinks he/ she can be substituted by technology SHOULD” ( am not quoting verbatim as don´t have it in front of me)

    I am afraid I have to say that I am not sure what you mean by the ” Crisis in Education”.

    I am not sure I have met many ELT teachers who were even remotely interested in Education. They saw their job as just teaching the Simple Present and the Present Perfect ( as that was what they were “trained to do”) although people like Andrew Littlejohn and many others have been insisting that there is more to ELT than just isolated language structures. ( See article in ETP Issue 6 1998 ” Language Learning Tasks and Education”

    I am sorry about my long posting, but looking back at the previous ones, it seems everybody focused purely on ICT and I tried to answer all three questions

    BTW could not find a way of getting into the Urtak questionnaire to answer the questions. It is probably because I am not a “digital native”.

    María Sara Rodríguez

  17. Nik Peachey says:

    Hi María Sara,

    Yes, at times it does seem futile trying to introduce technology into the classroom, when many teachers still struggle and resist any kinds of ‘modern’ teaching methods. I’m hoping that we can maybe use the drive of technology to bring along some more up to date methods too.

    It could still take a while.

    Best

    Nik

  18. Prof G S Rathore says:

    1. In an ESL or EFL situation, as in India, where the learners have already learnt their mother-tongue, and also where the teaching/learning milieux are so widely apart for rural and urban pupils with varied abilities of ELT teachers, the major challenge is to sensitize them to the new developments and make their best use.
    2. I taught in India for 34 years and in Libya for 7 years. Not much has changed at ELT teaching/ learning level except at individual level. We have been rigidly following the conventional ways and not allowing the SMS language to intrude in formal situations.
    3. Again there is no need to change nor can it be called a major change when we only try to raise our/learners’ awareness about various kinds of changes that take place around us in order to utilize some of them for better teaching/learning.

    • Nik Peachey says:

      Hi Prof Rathore

      This is quite a saddening response. Especially from India, which is a country that has nuclear power and a space program, I would have thought there would be more optimism for at least the potential for change.

      Do you see no potential for change in the near future? Is it recognised that there is a need to change and develop a digitally literate, or even literate population?

      Best

      Nik Peachey

      • Prof G S Rathore says:

        There is no reason or need for sadness. We have been a nation with traditional background and do not thrust changes. Changes come naturally, which you can neither stop nor compel. While reading/sending SMS’s users do make use of the new kind of language. However, it needs to be discouraged in formal situations, where the standards are different.

  19. Mr Darkbloom says:

    To affirm some very good comments I read here… the main problems as I also see them:

    1. The obsession in mainstream education with standardized testing (!)

    2. The obsession with grammar as a base for learning languages (!)

    3. The obsession with pre-selected curriculum, rather than it being personalized, guided by the learner’s interests and talents.

    All these are very mainstream systemic problems. There are many schools around the world who DO put the learners first, but this is labeled the ‘alternate’ education. It should be the norm.

    We should also say, it’s not only learners who are victims here, it’s often teachers who are given so much crushing top-down ‘wisdom’ to follow.

    I believe very strongly that by carrying on in this fashion.. EVERYONE in society suffers.

    :(

  20. […] the questionnaire that appeared in the very first posting in this series. One of the questions I asked was “ Is the paradigm of the classroom as the […]

  21. donny says:

    1. I think the major challenges are lack of exposure of the language from the students’ effort, students in my country, Indonesia, are now much more exposed to the language but the problem is how often they are using it in their daily activities.

    2. Things have changed a lot, in my teaching method for sure, five years ago I was still teaching the old way(open the book and do this and write something on the wall). But I can still say, there’s still the same method like this used at school though the book is already communicative. Pretty sad, to know that maybe they haven’t had the new teaching methodology(interactive and communicative) training or maybe some who had don’t want to apply it in the class.

    3. Technology has been a good help in my teaching experience. I’ve been using GCompris in Ubuntu 10.10(Linux build) for my student learning numbers, maths, even alphabets. Internet has been a good use for students’ project. Recently my students who are using Blackberry are put into a chatting group where everyone can keep discussing and using the language.

    Donny Qiu, Jakarta, Indonesia.

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